Daniel's Seventy Weeks Prophecy
by Daniel J. Dyke
JPS Version24 Seventy weeks are decreed upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sin, and to forgive iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal vision and prophet, and to anoint the most holy place. 25 Know therefore and discern, that from the going forth of the word to restore and to build Jerusalem unto one anointed, a prince, shall be seven weeks; and for threescore and two weeks, it shall be built again, with broad place and moat, but in troublous times. 26 And after the threescore and two weeks shall an anointed one be cut off, and be no more; and the people of a prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; but his end shall be with a flood; and unto the end of the war desolations are determined. 27 And he shall make a firm covenant with many for one week; and for half of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the offering to cease; and upon the wing of detestable things shall be that which causeth appalment; and that until the extermination wholly determined be poured out upon that which causeth appalment.'
Predictive prophecy is what sets the God of Christianity and Judaism apart from the so called gods of other religions. Simply stated, God is able to see the future, but the demons who masquerade as gods cannot (Is. 41:21-24). They can manipulate the future to some degree, but only as the true God allows. Prophecy is God's declaration of what he will do or allow in the coming days. Sometimes he states a prophecy in such a way that it cannot be understood until it takes place, but he also will state it in such a way that when it does take place it becomes obvious that he knew what he was talking about. One of the great prophecies of Christ in the O.T., if not in some ways the greatest, is Daniel 9:24-27. It not only predicts the greatest event of history, the coming of Jesus, but tries to date when that will take place.
Setting: It was originally set in the the context of Daniel reflecting on the fulfillment of what is called Jeremiah's 70 years prophecy (Jeremiah 25:8-14; 29:10). He realized that the period of captivity was about over.
I. The Sixfold Purpose of the Seventy Weeks Prophecy (9:24)A. Finish Transgression (lükallë´ haPPeºša` / [v;P,øh; aLe’k;l.)
B. Make an End of Sin (ûlaHTöm Ha††ä´ôt / tAaJ'x; ~Tox.l;W)
C. Make Atonement for Iniquity (ûlükaPPër `äwön / !wOë[' rPEåk;l.W)
D. Bring in Everlasting Righteousness (ûlühäbî´ ceºdeq `ö|lämîm / ~ymi_l'[o) qd,c,ä aybiÞh'l.W)
E. Seal Up Vision and Prophecy/Prophet (wülaHTöm Häzôn wünäbî´ / aybiên"w> !Azæx' ‘~Tox.l;w>)
F. Anoint the Holy of Holies (wülimšöªH qöºdeš qo|däšîm / ~yvi(d'q") vd,qOï x;voßm.liw>)
II. The Beginning of the Seventy Weeks Prophecy (9:25)
"The issuing of a decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem . . ."A. 539 BC Cyrus the Persian (Darius the Mede) allows the Jews to return from Babylonian captivity and rebuild the Temple in Jerusalem (Ezra 1:1-4; 6:1-4). The problem with this date was that they were only allowed to rebuild the temple and Daniel is talking about the decree to rebuild the city including the walls.
B. 458 BC Artaxerxes allows Ezra the scribe to return home with large offering for the temple that he may use for whatever project he wishes to undertake (Ezra 7:11-26), but because of pressure from the Samaritans he makes them stop (Ezra 4:11-23).
C. 445 BC Artaxerxes allows Nehemiah to return and finish the work that was begun by Ezra (Nehemiah 2:1-10).
III. The Object/Goal of the Prophecy (9:25)A. Messiah the Prince (mashiach nagid).
B. The Greek term christos/Xri/stoj(i.e. Christ) is merely a translation of this Hebrew word. Both terms mean "anointed" or "smeared."
IV. The Three Parts of the Seventy Weeks (9:25)A. 7 weeks
B. 62 weeks
C. 1 week
A ____ B ___________________________________________________ C _ D
V. The Length of the WeeksA. There were two type of weeks in Israel: days and years.
2. According to Leviticus 25:1-6 the work week for the land was divided into seven years, the land would be worked for six years and then would rest for one. Most conservative commentators, and some liberal, would interpret this passage in this way.
3. Using the second method the length of each period can then be determined.
2. 458-483=25+1=AD 26 .
3. 445-483=38+1=AD 39
4. The one is added because on the calendar there is no zero. You move directly from 1 BC to AD 1 .
b. Have nothing (cf. Is. 53:2-10)
3. War and desolation are determined until the end.
2. Titus (prince of Rome) sacks Jerusalem and destroys the temple in 70 AD, because the Jews who are the people of the messianic prince reject the Messiah (cf. Mt. 23-24)
3. The Jewish war of 66-73 devastated the country.
|458 ___ 409 _________________________________________ 26 _ 33 (70)|
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Daniel J. Dyke