The book is constantly pushing our ideas about theology to the limit. It poses many questions, whether implicit or explicit, that demand answers.
Presentation of Subjects
|Now there was a day when the sons of the Elohim came to present themselves before the Yahweh, and the Satan also came among them.||Again there was a day when the sons of the Elohim came to present themselves before Yahweh, and the Satan also came among them to present himself before Yahweh.|
Question #1: Whereabouts
|Yahweh said to the Satan, "From where do you come?"||Yahweh said to the Satan, "Where have you come from?"|
|Then the Satan answered Yahweh and said, "From roaming about on the earth and walking around on it."||Then the Satan answered Yahweh and said, "From roaming about on the earth and walking around on it."|
Question #2: The Righteousness of Job Divinely Declared
|Yahweh said to the Satan, "Have you considered My servant Job? For there is no one like him on the earth, a blameless and upright man, fearing Elohim and turning away from evil."||Yahweh said to the Satan, "Have you considered My servant Job? For there is no one like him on the earth, a blameless and upright man fearing Elohim and turning away from evil. And he still holds fast his integrity, although you incited Me against him to ruin him without cause."|
Answer #2: A Satanic Accusation and Assertion
|Then the Satan answered Yahweh, "Does Job fear Elohim for nothing? Have You not made a hedge about him and his house and all that he has, on every side? You have blessed the work of his hands, and his possessions have increased in the land. But put forth Your hand now and touch all that he has; he will surely curse You to Your face."||The Satan answered Yahweh and said, "Skin for skin! Yes, all that a man has he will give for his life. However, put forth Your hand now, and touch his bone and his flesh; he will curse You to Your face."|
Divine Limitation of the Evil to be Done to Job
|Then Yahweh said to the Satan, "Behold, all that he has is in your power, only do not put forth your hand on him."||Yahweh said to the Satan, "Behold, he is in your power, only spare his life."|
Departure of the Satan
|So the Satan departed from the presence of Yahweh||Then Satan went out from the presence of the LORD and smote Job with sore boils from the sole of his foot to the crown of his head.|
b. Does it point to the antiquity of the book or at least the antiquity of the dramatic date?
c. Is it meant to increase the complexity of the problem? In other words "the" God, who is Yahweh, allows these persons, who may be of dubious background (Gen. 6:1-4), an audience and accepts a challenge from one of their kind.
d. Why use it in its strongest possible form (sons of god vs. sons of the god)?
e. What is the range of this term?
|Text||Identity||Work||Object of Work||Quality|
|Job 1:6, 7, 8, 9, 12; 2:1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7|
|I Kings 5:18 (5:4)||Human Enemy||Political Opposition||Solomon|
|I Kings 11:14, 23, 25||Human Enemies||Political Opposition||Solomon|
|I Chronicles 21:1||? 1)God 2) Satan 3) Human||Arouse to Sin||David||?|
|Psalm 109:6||Evil Human||Accuse Unjustly||Wicked Man|
|Zechariah 3:1, 2||Supernatural||Accuse Zechariah before God|
|Numbers 22:22, 32||Angel of the Lord||Oppose Balaam to keep him from doing evil by cursing Israel||Balaam|
|I Samuel 29:4||David||Fight against an enemy in a battle||Philisitines|
|II Samuel 19:23 (22)||Sons of Zeruiah||Oppose a king's decision||David|
4. In addition to the two primary names,
Yahweh and Elohim, the author uses three lesser names as well.
b. Eloah (aHOlE))
|Job||41||3:4, 23; 4:9, 17; 5:17; 6:4, 8, 9; 9:13; 10:2; 11:5, 6, 7; 12:4, 6; 15:8; 16:20, 21; 19:6, 21, 26; 21:9, 19; 22:12, 26; 24:12; 27:3, 8, 10; 29:2, 4; 31:2, 6; 33:12, 26; 35:10; 36:2; 37:15, 22; 39:17; 40:2;|
|Psalms||4||18:32; 50:22; 139:19; 114:7|
|Daniel||4||10:38; 11:37, 38, 39|
|Job||31||5:17; 6:4, 14; 8:3, 5; 11:7; 13:3; 15:25; 21:15, 20; 22:3, 17, 23, 25, 26; 23:16; 24:1; 27:2, 10, 11, 13; 29:5; 31:2, 35; 32:8; 33:4; 34:10, 12, 13; 37:23; 40:2|
|Genesis||6||17:1; 35:11; 28:3; 43:14; 48:3; 49:25|
|Numbers||7||1:5; 2:10; 7:30, 35; 10:18; 24:4, 16|
|1:5||Piel Perfect||Job's Children||God||Cursing|
|1:10||Piel Perfect||God||Job's Work||Bless|
|1:21||Pual Participle||Job||Name of God||Bless|
|31:20||Piel Perfect||Job||Other Men||Bless|
1. The scripture quotation of Job 1:6-12 is from the NASB (Revised 1995), but with modifications to reflect the names of God and Satan.
2. Translations try to avoid the offense of the verse by translating bene haelohim as "angels" or "heavenly beings" when it is obviously "the sons of the god(s)" in the Hebrew text. I think the best rendering, if one is going to paraphrase, is that of the N.W.T. The following chart is laid out in my order of preference:
|Sons of the [true] God||Sons of God||Heavenly Beings||Angels*||Members of the Court of Heaven|
|NWT||NNAS, NAS, BV, ASV, AV, JPS, RSV, YLT, DBY||TEV, NRSV||NIV,||NEB|